Welcome to my last blog in the series where we to discover VTK’s numpy_interface module. If you are not familiar with this module, I recommend checking out my previous blogs on it ([1], [2], [3]). In this blog, I will talk about how one can work with composite datasets and arrays using this module.

Let’s start with defining what a composite dataset is. From a class point of view, it is vtkCompositeDataSet or any of its subclasses. From a functionality point of view, it is a way of collecting together a set of vtkDataObjects (usually vtkDataSets). The most generic example is vtkMultiBlockDataSet which allows the creation of an arbitrary tree of vtkDataObjects. Another example is vtkOverlappingAMR which represent a Berger-Colella style AMR meshes. Here is how we can create a multi-block dataset.

```
>>> import vtk
>>> s = vtk.vtkSphereSource()
>>> s.Update()
>>> c = vtk.vtkConeSource()
>>> c.Update()
>>> mb = vtk.vtkMultiBlockDataSet()
>>> mb.SetBlock(0, s.GetOutput())
>>> mb.SetBlock(1, c.GetOutput())
```

Many of VTK’s algorithms work with composite datasets without any change. For example:

```
>>> e = vtk.vtkElevationFilter()
>>> e.SetInputData(mb)
>>> e.Update()
>>> mbe = e.GetOutputDataObject(0)
>>> print mbe.GetClassName()
```

This will output 'vtkMultiBlockDataSet'. Note that I used GetOutputDataObject() rather than GetOutput(). GetOutput() is simply a GetOutputDataObject() wrapped with a SafeDownCast() to the expected output type of the algorithm – which in this case is a vtkDataSet. So GetOutput() will return 0 even when GetOutputDataObject() returns an actual composite dataset.

Now that we have a composite dataset with a scalar, we can use numpy_interface.

```
>>> from vtk.numpy_interface import dataset_adapter as dsa
>>> mbw = dsa.WrapDataObject(mbe)
>>> mbw.PointData.keys()
['Normals', 'Elevation']
>>> elev = mbw.PointData['Elevation']
>>> elev
<vtk.numpy_interface.dataset_adapter.VTKCompositeDataArray at 0x1189ee410>
```

Note that the array type is different than we have seen previously (VTKArray). However, it still works the same way.

```
>>> from vtk.numpy_interface import algorithms as algs
>>> algs.max(elev)
0.5
>>> algs.max(elev + 1)
1.5
```

You can individually access the arrays of each block as follows.

```
>>> elev.Arrays[0]
VTKArray([ 0.5 , 0. , 0.45048442, 0.3117449 , 0.11126047,
0. , 0. , 0. , 0.45048442, 0.3117449 ,
0.11126047, 0. , 0. , 0. , 0.45048442,
0.3117449 , 0.11126047, 0. , 0. , 0. ,
0.45048442, 0.3117449 , 0.11126047, 0. , 0. ,
0. , 0.45048442, 0.3117449 , 0.11126047, 0. ,
0. , 0. , 0.45048442, 0.3117449 , 0.11126047,
0. , 0. , 0. , 0.45048442, 0.3117449 ,
0.11126047, 0. , 0. , 0. , 0.45048442,
0.3117449 , 0.11126047, 0. , 0. , 0. ], dtype=float32)
```

Note that indexing is slightly different.

```
>>> print elev[0:3]
[VTKArray([ 0.5, 0., 0.45048442], dtype=float32),
VTKArray([ 0., 0., 0.43301269], dtype=float32)]
```

The return value is a composite array consisting of 2 VTKArrays. The [] operator simply returned the first 4 values of each array. In general, all indexing operations apply to each VTKArray in the composite array collection. Similarly for algorithms such as where.

```
>>> print algs.where(elev < 0.5)
[(array([ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17,
18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34,
35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49]),),
(array([0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]),)]
```

Now, let’s look at the other array called Normals.

```
>>> normals = mbw.PointData['Normals']
>>> normals.Arrays[0]
VTKArray([[ 0.00000000e+00, 0.00000000e+00, 1.00000000e+00],
[ 0.00000000e+00, 0.00000000e+00, -1.00000000e+00],
[ 4.33883727e-01, 0.00000000e+00, 9.00968850e-01],
[ 7.81831503e-01, 0.00000000e+00, 6.23489797e-01],
[ 9.74927902e-01, 0.00000000e+00, 2.22520933e-01],
...
[ 6.89378142e-01, -6.89378142e-01, 2.22520933e-01],
[ 6.89378142e-01, -6.89378142e-01, -2.22520933e-01],
[ 5.52838326e-01, -5.52838326e-01, -6.23489797e-01],
[ 3.06802124e-01, -3.06802124e-01, -9.00968850e-01]], dtype=float32)
>>> normals.Arrays[1]
<vtk.numpy_interface.dataset_adapter.VTKNoneArray at 0x1189e7790>
```

Notice how the second arrays is a VTKNoneArray. This is because vtkConeSource does not produce normals. Where an array does not exist, we use a VTKNoneArray as placeholder. This allows us to maintain a one-to-one mapping between datasets of a composite dataset and the arrays in the VTKCompositeDataArray. It also allows us to keep algorithms working in parallel without a lot of specialized code (see my previous blog).

Where many of the algorithms apply independently to each array in a collection, some algorithms are global. For example, min and max as we demonstrated above. It is sometimes useful to get per block answers. For this, you can use _per_block algorithms.

```
>>> print algs.max_per_block(elev)
[VTKArray(0.5, dtype=float32), VTKArray(0.4330126941204071, dtype=float32)]
```

These work very nicely together with other operations. For example, here is how we can normalize the elevation values in each block.

```
>>> _min = algs.min_per_block(elev)
>>> _max = algs.max_per_block(elev)
>>> _norm = (elev - _min) / (_max - _min)
>>> print algs.min(_norm)
0.0
>>> print algs.max(_norm)
1.0
```

Once you grasp these features, you should be able to use composite array very similarly to single arrays as described in previous blogs.

A final note on composite datasets. The composite data wrapper provided by numpy_interface.dataset_adapter offers a few convenience functions to traverse composite datasets. Here is a simple example:

```
>>> for ds in mbw:
>>> print type(ds)
<class 'vtk.numpy_interface.dataset_adapter.PolyData'>
<class 'vtk.numpy_interface.dataset_adapter.PolyData'>
```

This wraps up the blog series on numpy_interface. I hope to follow these up with some concrete examples of the module in action and some other useful information on using VTK from Python. Until then, cheers.

All posts in this series: **Part 1**, **Part 2**, **Part 3**, **Part 4**, and **Part 5**.

Thease have beed a good series of articles Berk. Looking forward to your concrete examples and other information.

Great coverage Berk! Looking forward to promote it with real cases. Thanks.